In Tristia (“Sorrows,” approx. 8-17 AD), the poet Ovid laments his life in exile from Rome (the exile itself may or may not have actually happened). One of the verses describes the pain of losing his country.

Version #1

When I lost my country, then, believe me was when I died, an earlier, grimmer death.Translation in Lapham’s Quarterly. “Foreigners.” Vol. 8, No. 1, Winter 2015

Version #2

When I lost my native land, then must you think that I perished; that was my earlier and harder death. Translation by Arthur Leslie Wheeler in Tristia Ex Ponto. William Heinemann, 1939. Retrieved from